Abandonment: When a visitor exits or leaves a conversion process on a website and does not return later in the session. See also conversion funnel.
Accuracy: The ability of a measurement to match the actual value of the quantity being measured. Accuracy is the foundation upon which your marketing analytics should be built. If you can't trust that your data is accurate, you can't make confident decisions. In statistical terms, accuracy is the width of the confidence interval for a desired confidence level. See also: unique visitors.
Acknowledgement Page: A page displayed after a visitor completes an action or transaction. For example, a thank-you or a receipt page. Acknowledgement pages are often important in Scenario Analysis, where it is an indicator of a completed scenario.
Acquisition: The process of gaining customers through the means of different marketing strategies. For the purposes of web analytics, it often refers specifically to the process of attracting visitors to a web site.
After-Click Tracking (ACT): After-Click Tracking is the recording of the activity path of a visitor on a site after they have clicked though from a marketing campaign. This is often referred to as 'Post-Click' tracking.
Actionable Data: Information that allows you to make a decision or can be made use of in any way.
Ad: A link that takes a visitor to a web site when clicked on, usually graphic or text. See also banner ad.
Ad Click: A click on an advertisement on a website which takes a user to another site. See also ad view.
Ad Hoc Query: A non-standard inquiry posed to a database of information as the need arises. See also query.
Ad View: A web page that presents an ad. There may be more than one ad on an ad view. Once visitors have viewed an ad, they can click on it.
Affiliate Marketing: A method of promoting web businesses in which an affiliate is rewarded for providing customers. Compensation could be made based on a value for visits, subscriptions, leads, sales, and so on. See also PPC.
Aggregate Data: A summary of collected information which groups data together without individual-level statistics.
Analytics: See web analytics.
API: Application Programming Interface is a system that a computer or application supplies in order to allow requests for service to be made of it by other computer programs. APIs allow data to be exchanged between computer programs.
ARC: a methodology developed by Cognesia for use within conversion analysis, which focusses upon 'Acquisition', 'Retention' and 'Conversion' rates.
ASP: Active Server Pages are a set of software components that run on a web server and let developers build dynamic web pages.
Attrition: The erosion of your customer base over time. The opposite of customer retention.
Authentication: The technique by which access to Internet or intranet resources requires the user to enter a username and password as identification.
Average Lifetime Value: The average of the lifetime value of a visitor or multiple visitors during the reporting period, where each visitor's lifetime value is the total monetary value of a visitor's past orders since visitor tracking began.

Bandwidth: Measure, in kilobytes of data transferred, of the traffic on a site.
Banner Ad: An advertisement embedded on a web page usually intended to drive traffic to a different website by linking to the advertiser's site. The Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) has created a standard set of banner ad sizes (Medium Rectangle, Rectangle, Leaderboard, Wide Skyscraper) into a set of guidelines called the Universal Ad Package).
Benchmark: A standard by which something can be measured or judged.
Bot: See robot.
Bounce: See bounce rate and email bounce.
Bounce Rate: The percentage of entrances on a web page that result in an immediate exit from the web site.
Browser: A program used to locate and view HTML documents (Microsoft Internet Explorer for example.)
Business Intelligence: Business intelligence refers to a category of software and tools designed to gather, store, analyze, and deliver data in a user-friendly format to help organizations make more informed business decisions. Software types include dashboarding, data mining, data warehouses, and other information systems.


Campaign Analysis: A Cognesia feature that tracks activity originating from a marketing campaign, so you can compare your campaigns and evaluate their effectiveness. Campaigns are tracked using a Cognesia campaign tag placed within the incoming URL.
Client: The browser used by a website visitor.
Client Error: An error that occurs because of an invalid request by the visitor's browser. See also return code.
CNAME: A Canonical NAME record makes one domain name an alias of another.
Conversion: An action that signifies a completion of a specified activity. For many sites, a user converts if they buy a product, sing up for a newsletter, or download a file. The conversion rate is the percentage of visitors who do convert. Cookie deletion can have an impact on your conversion rate because if a cookie is being systematically deleted, repeat visitor rates will be under-counted and new visitor rates will be over-counted, thus skewing the conversion rate metric by which you analyze your site's overall effectiveness.
Conversion Funnel: The series of steps that move a visitor towards a specified conversion event, such as an order or registration signup. See also abandonment.
Convert: See conversion.
Cookie: A text file that transmits information to a data collection facility via a 1x1 pixel GIF image request and includes a tracking ID that is used to identify returning visitors. Contrary to some industry speculation, cookies can not be used for malicious use such as privacy tapping. See also first and third-party cookies.
Crawler: See spider.
Creative: For the purposes of web analyitcs, "creative" describes the characteristics of a marketing activity, such as color, size and messaging-for example, a "Buy Now" graphic.
CTR: Click Through Rate. A click through rate is the rate at which visitors "click through" from one website page or property to the next. A good indication of an ad's effectiveness.
Customer Segment: A powerful aspect of relationship marketing in which you target sub-section or group of customers who share a specific trait or set of behaviors. See also demographics and psychographics.

Dashboard: A web analytics dashboard provides all of your critical metrics in one place to help you understand the health or performance of your business.
Data Warehouse: is a logical collection of information gathered from many different operational databases used to create business intelligence that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks, primarily, a record of an enterprise's past transactional and operational information, stored in a database designed to favor efficient data analysis and reporting.
Demographics: The physical characteristics of human populations and segments of populations, often used to identify consumer markets. Demographics can include information such as age, gender, marital status, education, and geographic location. See also psychographics.
DNS: A Domain Name System is an Internet addressing scheme that uses a group of names that are listed with dots (.) between them. See also domain.
Domain: An area in the Internet specified by a URL address. The primary-level domain is at the end after the dot and the second-level domain comes before it, and shows where in the primary-level domain the address can be found. For example www.cognesia.com, ".com" is the primary-level domain and "www" is the second-level domain.
Domain Name: The text name that corresponds to a numeric IP address of a computer on the Internet.


The act of selling goods and services online via a standalone site or through an online auction center.
Email Bounce: The number of e-mails that were sent but never reach the intended receiver.
Entry Page: The first viewed page on a visitor's path through a site.
Exit Page: The last page viewed on a visitor's path through a site.

Filters: In most (inferior) web analytics and database systems, a filter is simply a means of narrowing the scope of a report or view by specifying ranges or types of data to include or exclude. Cognesia's 'profiling' engine allows users to select any group of visitors and isolate or exclude their visits from analysis. This has historically been referred to as 'filtering'. However, in view of the more advanced meaning, the current release of Cognesia no longer uses this term, in favour of 'profile selection'.
First Party Cookie: For most business models, first-party cookies are regarded as the most reliable method to measure visitor activity. Whereas a third-party cookie is usually set by an analytics vendor, (an entity with whom the user does not have a relationship), a first-party cookie is set by the business, an organization with whom the Web site visitor has specifically chosen to do business. Because of this relationship, first-party cookies are deemed more secure by the user. Also see cookies.
Form: An HTML page which passes variables back to the server. These pages are used to gather information from users. Also referred to as scripts.
Frequency: The number of times a visitor has visited a site during a reporting period. Average Frequency is the average of frequencies of all the visitors during the reporting period. Frequency is a retention metric and is part of RFM (recency, frequency, monetary) analysis. See also recency and latency.
FTP: File Transfer Protocol is a standard method of sending files between computers over the Internet.
Funnel: See Scenarios Analysis.


GIF: A Graphics Interchange Format is a bitmap format for images with up to 256 distinct colors. Commonly used on the web for animated banner ads.

Hit: ANY request for ANY file handled by the web-server. A single page likely contains multiple hits as multiple image and text files are downloaded from the web-server. This term is so poorly applied that most web analytics tools now no longer use it.
Home Page: The main page of a web site. The home page provides visitors with an overview and links to the rest of the site
Home Page URL: The local path or Internet URL to the default page of the web site, which is often used by various Explore reports as a starting point for analysis.
HTML: HyperText Markup Language is a means of communicating text (and information about that text) that was designed to display pages with hypertext (links) and other information in a web browser.
HTTP: Hyper Text Transfer Protocol is a standard method of transferring data between a web server and a web browser.


IAB: Interactive Advertising Bureau (http://www.iab.net)
Impression: The display of an online advertisement (usually a banner ad) to a web site visitor.
Internet: The Internet is the publicly accessible global system of interconnected computer networks that transmit data via a standardized Internet Protocol. See also World Wide Web.
IP: Internet Protocol is a standard used for communicating data.
IP Address: Internet Protocol address is used to identify a computer connected to the Internet.
Intellimap: Intellimap is an easy-to-use visual overlay of web metrics displayed right on a web page, which you can use to analyze page performance, providing insight into page conversion, path analysis, and overall web page statistics such as unique visitor counts.


JavaScript: A scripting language developed by Netscape. While it is often used for websites, it is also used to enable scripting access to objects embedded in other applications.
JavaScript tag: See page tag.
JPEG: A Joint Photographic Experts Group file format is a commonly used file type for photographic images, especially on the web.


Keyword: Terms entered into the search field of a web search engine. See also organic search and PPC.
KPI: Key Performance Indicators. Key Performance Indicators are typically kept in dashboards and provide customers with an understanding of how the site is performing.


Latency: The average number of days between visits for a given visitor during a reporting period. For example, those who visit on average every seven days. See also recency and frequency.
Link: On a web page, text or an image that has been coded to take a browser from one page to another or from one site to another.
Log File: A file created by a web or proxy server which contains all of the access information regarding the activity on that server. A log file can be 'read by' (processed into) Cognesia as an alternative to using page tagging.
LTV: Long-Term Value or Life-Time Value. Life-Time Value is a metric used to describe the value a specific customer has over the life of their relationship with you.


Marketing Performance Management (MPM): Marketing Performance Management drives stronger customer relationships and higher lifetime value, based on a framework of established goals, consistent metrics, constant optimization across the entire marketing organization and across every customer touch point.
Metrics: Metrics are a system of parameters or ways of quantitative assessment of a process that is to be measured, along with the processes to carry out such measurement. Metrics define what is to be measufred.


N-dimensional: Unlimited dimensions.
Navigation: The act of moving from location to location within a web site, or between web sites, accomplished by clicking on links. Navigation can also refer to the overall structure of the links on the site, compfrising the paths available to the visitor.
Non-referrals: Visitors who arrive at a site by typing a domain into an address bar, using a bookmark, or clicking on an emailed URL. See also referrals.


OCR: Organic Click Rate. See also PPC.
ODBC: Open Database Connectivity. This interface standard provides a common application programming interface (API) for accessing databases. This gives users access to data that is created with other software. For example, using Cognesia Applink, you can import an report data directly into a Microsoft Access database.
On-demand service: Cognesia is available as an on-demand service accessed via the web.
Opt-in: This permission-based email communication requires customers to verify the opt-in method before their e-mail addresses can be used to communicate with them.
Organic Search: A type of search in which web users find sites having unpaid listings, as opposed to using the pay-per-click advertisement listings displayed among the search results.


Page: A document provided by the server, including HTML, scripts, and text files. Images, and some other common file types are not considered pages. Documents are defined by the system administrator, but generally include all static content, such as complete html pages. Dynamic pages are created with variables and do not exist anywhere in a static form. Forms are scripted pages which get information from a visitor that gets passed back to the server.
Page Tag: A piece of JavaScript code embedded on a web page and executed by the browser when the page is viewed. See also log files.
Page View: is generally defined as a request to load a single page of a website. On the web, a page request would result from a web surfer clicking on a link on another page that points to the page in question. See also hit.
Parameters: These are located in the URL immediately after a question mark and followed by an equal sign and a return value, known as name=value.
Path: A path is the click pattern a visitor uses as they traverse through multiple pages.
PEF: Personal Experience Factor is the customer's interaction with your website, advertising, or brand.
Performance Indicators: See KPIs.
PIE: Persistent Identification Element is a type of tag that is attached a user's browser, providing a unique ID similar to traditional cookie coding.
Platform: The operating system (such as Microsoft Windows) used by a visitor to the site.
POA: Point of Action is the location of a conversion event.
POC: Percentage of Completion or Proof of Concept
PPC: Pay Per Click or paid search uses search keywords that cost a certain amount for each customer click on that term in order to get to your site. See also organic search.
Protocol: An established method of exchanging data over the Internet.
Psychographics: Data used to build customer segments based on attitudes, values, beliefs and opinions as opposed to the factual characteristics. See also demographics.

Query: A question or inquiry used to find answers about certain metrics.
Query Parameter: An individual piece of a query string consisting of a parameter name and a value for the parameter.


Reach: The size of the audience reading, viewing, hearing, or interacting with a message in a given period of time. Reach can be understood as either an absolute number, or a fraction of a population.
Recency: The number of days since a visitor's most recent visit during a reporting period. See also frequency.
Referrals: The location that visitors come from, particularly the sites, search engines or directories. See also non-referrals.
Relationship Marketing: Relationship marketing is a type of marketing that traces its roots to direct response marketing. It emphasizes building long-term relationships with customers rather than individual transactions. It requires understanding customer needs as they go through life cycles of interacting and purchasing from organizations, and requires that marketers accurately determine customer intent in order to provide them the right message at the right time.
Return Code (Status Code): The return status of the request which specifies whether the transfer was successful and why.

Possible "Success" codes are:

200 = Success: OK
201 = Success: Created
202 = Success: Accepted
203 = Success: Partial Information
204 = Success: No Response
300 = Success: Redirected
301 = Success: Moved
302 = Success: Found
303 = Success: New Method
304 = Success: Not Modified

Possible "Failed" codes are:
400 = Failed: Bad Request
401 = Failed: Unauthorized
402 = Failed: Payment Required
403 = Failed: Forbidden
404 = Failed: Not Found
500 = Failed: Internal Error
501 = Failed: Not Implemented
502 = Failed: Overloaded Temporarily
503 = Failed: Gateway Timeout
RFM Analysis: Recency, Frequency, Monetary analysis.
ROMI: Return on Marketing Investment
ROAS: Return on Advertising Spending
Robot: An automated process that performs mundane, repeatable tasks to provide information. Search engine robots or bots provide such functions, cataloging the internet for searchers to find information.
ROI: Return on Investment
RSS: Really Simple Syndication is a type of web syndication used by news sites and weblogs which provides summaries of information with links to the complete content.


Sampling: In statistics, the selection of individual observations intended to yield knowledge about a population, especially for the purposes of statistical inference.
Scenario Analysis: A report showing the amount of activity at each step of a defined scenario, plus conversion rates for each transition from step to step as well as for the whole process. Examples of scenarios are check-out, registration, or application sequences.
Script: See JavaScript.
Search Engine: A search engine is a program that helps you find information on the web.
Segment: A grouping of customers, defined by website activity or other data, which can be used to target them effectively.
SEM: Search Engine Marketing is a means to increase the visibility of a website in search engine results pages.
SEO: Search Engine Optimization is the improvement of rankings for relevant keywords in search results by adjusting website structure and content to make them more easily read and understood by a search engine's software programs.
Server: A computer that hosts information available to anyone accessing the Internet.
Server Error: A fault occurring at the computer hosting information. See also return code.
Session: A session is a record of one visitor browsing through a site.
Sessionization: This is the process for creating a session. Sessionization methods are ways in which you can define a session. Web Analytics solutions have multiple sessionization methods such as cookies, IP Address, IP+ Agent and so on. These methods tell the web analytics system how they should count a series of page requests from the same individual or browsing machine.
SKU: Stock Keeping Units
Spider: An automated software program that gathers pages from the Internet.
Suffix: The last part of a domain that can be used to identify the type of organization or location of a site.


Tag: See page tag.
Third-party cookie: Hosted web analytics services track visitor behavior by inserting a small piece of tracking code onto each page of a site. Because the cookie is served by an analytics vendor rather than your own site, the cookie is considered third-party.
Traffic: On the web, traffic refers to the amount of data sent and received by visitors to a website.


User: The end-user of a product or device. User typically refers to the end user of software.
UNIX: is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T Bell Labs employees including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and Douglas McIlroy.
URL: A Uniform Resource Locator is a means of identifying an exact location on the Internet.
User Agent: Fields in an extended web server log file identifying the browser and platform used by a visitor.
User Session: A period of activity (all hits) for one user of a website. A unique user is determined by the IP address or cookie. Typically, a user session is terminated when a user is inactive for more than 30 minutes. See also visit.
UV: Unique Visitors refers to a measure captured by some web analytics solutions that track the interaction a single user has with a website over time.


Views: Views is a measure of the number of times something has been 'seen' by a visitor, making it the primary 'volume' measurement.
Visitor: Similar to unique visitor, visitor refers to an individual that visits a website. A visitor or unique visitor can have multiple visits.
Visitor Segmentation: The process of segregating and studying visitors based on various behavior patterns.
Visit: A visit is most easily understood as an interaction a visitor has with a website over a specified period of time or activity. By default, if a visitor has has not executed a tracked action within 30 minutes, the visit session is considered to have terminated.
VOD: Video on Demand


W3C: World Wide Web Consortium develops interoperable technologies (specifications, guidelines, software, and tools) to lead the Web to its full potential.
Warehouse: See data warehouse.
Web Analytics: The process of collection, measurement and analysis of user activity on a website to understand and help achieve the intended objective of the website. This can include: the measurement of the behaviour of visitors, the amount of traffic, the conversion rates, web server performance, user experience, and other information.
Website: A website is a collection of web pages, on particular domain name or sub-domain on the World Wide Web on the Internet. Usually it is made up of a set of web pages created using HTML and accessible via HTTP.
What if: A type of analysis that allows an end-user to pose hypothetical situations against their data to model or predict outcomes.
WML: Website META Language, a free, extensible off-line HTML generation toolkit for UNIX, distributed under the GNU General Public License (GPL v2).
World Wide Web: Also called the web, this is a global information space which people can communicate via computers connected to the Internet. Some people use "internet" and "the web" interchangeably, even though the web is a service that operates over the internet.


XML: Extensible Markup Language is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommended general-purpose markup language for creating special-purpose markup languages, capable of describing many different kinds of data.


YOY: Year over Year is a means of comparing data from one year to the next. For example, to compare online holiday retail revenue from last year to this year.

Zero Latency:
Latency is a time delay between the moment something is started, and the moment one of the effects of that event begins. When there is no time lapse between the event and the effect, it's called zero latency. In analytics, this term is used to describe instantaneous receipt of data and the ability to analyze and act on that data.
Zero-page Visit: A visit that included no page views. This is possible if a visit consisted of at least one request for a non-page file (such as a graphic) but no page files (such as .htm, .asp, .jsp, or .cfm.)